Nerium EHT Science

DISCOVER THE NEUROSCIENCE OF EHT

The Structural Integrity of Your Brain

A component essential to keeping your brain health young is the condition of its structural integrity.  The building blocks of the nervous system are Neuron. It is vital to keep the connections robust, between all the neurons in your brain. A major protein that is responsible for maintaining the connections between all the neurons in your brain is known as PP2A (Protein phosphatase 2A).

PP2A and Tau

Our brains are made up of a network of cells known as neurons. All Neurons are connected by axons, the structure of which is maintained by the tau proteins binding to the microtubules that run along the length of the axon. The PP2A system is a process that binds to the tau, thus ensuring the microtubules stay strong and maintain robust connections and thus healthy neurons.

Between natural aging, lack of exercise and or poor diet,  and concussive damage, the PP2A activity is compromised. When the PP2A is compromised it leads to hyperphosphorylation of tau. In other words, the binding process of the tau to the microtubules is compromised causing them to weaken and separate. When they weaken and separate, the neurons are destabilized making them unhealthy.

PP2A and Alpha-synuclein

Alpha-synuclein is also a protein that lives at the tip of each neuron in a structure known as
the presynaptic terminal, this is an essential part of how neurons communicate with each
other.

Alpha-synuclein is similar to tau, and is programmed by the same master protein regulator— PP2A.  Like tau, when the PP2A activity is compromised, it can cause the hyperphosphorylation of alpha-synuclein which may lead to irreversible damage and neurodegenerative disease.

The PP2A system is essential to overall brain health and function, so now what can you do about it?

EHT™, the proprietary excusive ingredient in the Nerium EHT Anti Aging Supplement is a naturally occurring botanically derived mix of bioactive molecules which help regulate the PP2A system. Therefore, it helps with the stabilization of brain integrity, restoring motor function, promoting balanced brain chemistry and improves overall brain health.

PP2A The Big Boss Protein

How does PP2A work? A major component of your brain health is the state of your neurons,  the cells responsible for transmitting the information in your brain and the strength of connections between neurons. Naturally as we age, stress or cause damage to our brains, the connections between the neurons, are known as axons which are held together by microtubules (MT), can weaken causing the neurons to become unhealthy or even die.

EHT™,  the proprietary excusive ingredient in the Nerium EHT Anti Aging Supplement helps to protect neuronal integrity by optimizing the activity of the master protein regulator PP2A which stabilizes the tau proteins which maintain the structure of MTs. Thus by keeping neurons healthy, EHT™ helps to promote robust protein signaling which leads to increased cognitive function and neuroprotection.

The following studies listed demonstrate that EHT provides cognitive support

  1. Therapeutic benefits of a component of coffee in a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease. Basurto-Islas G, Blanchard J, Tung YC, Fernandez JR, Voronkov M, Stock M, Zhang S, Stock JB, Iqbal, K. Neurobiol Aging. 2014. (Epub ahead of print). PMID: 25034344
  2. Neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of a coffee component in the MPTP model of Parkinson’s Disease. Lee KW, Im JY, Woo JM, Grosso H, Kim YS, Cristovao AC, Sonsalla PK, Schuster DS, Jalbut MM, Fernandez JR, Voronkov M, Junn E, Braithwaite SP, Stock JB, Mouradian MM. Neurotherapeutics. 2013. 10(1):143-53. PMID: 23296837
  3. Enhanced phosphatase activity attenuates a-synucleinopathy in a mouse model. Lee KW, Chen W, Junn E, Im JY, Grosso H, Sonsalla PK, Feng X, Ray N, Fernandez JR, Chao Y, Masliah E, Voronkov M, Braithwaite SP, Stock JB, Mouradian MM. J Neurosci. 2011. 11:31(19):6963-71. PMID: 21562258

The following available studies demonstrate that one or more of the components of the EHT Anti Aging Supplement provides cognitive support and/or protection

  1. Cognitive and clinical outcomes of homocysteine-lowering B-vitamin treatment in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. De Jager CA, Oulhaj A, Jacoby R, Refsum H, Smith AD. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012. 27(6):592-600 PMID: 21780182
  2. Oral folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation to prevent cognitive decline in community dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms – the Beyond Ageing Project: a randomized controlled trial. Walker JG, Batterham PJ, Mackinnon AJ, Jorm, AF, Hickie I, Fenech M, Kljakovic M, Crisp D, Christensen H. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012. Jan; 95(1):194-203. PMID: 22170358
  3. Homocysteine-lowering by B vitamins slows the rate of accelerated brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. Smith AD, Smith SM, de Jager CA, Whitbread P, Johnston C, Agacinski G, Oulhaj A, Bradley KM, Jacoby R, Refsum H. PLoS One. 2010. 5(9):e12244. PMID: 20838622
  4. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of folic acid supplementation of cholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer’s disease. Connelly PJ, Prentice NP, Cousland G, Bonham J. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008. 23(2):155-60. PMID: 17600848
  5. Enhancement of learning and memory by elevating brain magnesium. Slutsky I, Abumaria N, Wu LJ, Huang C, Zhang L, Zhao X, Govindarajan A, Zhao MG, Zhuo M, Tonegawa S, Liu G. Neuron 2010. 65(2):165-177. PMID: 20152124

Studies listed here demonstrate PP2A importance as a regulator in neurodegeneration and cognition

  1. Protein phosphatase 2A dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease. Sontag JM, Sontag E. Front Mol Neurosci. 2014. 11;7:16. PMID: 24653673
  2. How it all started: tau and protein phosphatase 2A. Liu C., Gotz J. J Alzheimer’s Dis. 2013. 37(3):483-494. PMID: 23948891
  3. Alpha-Synuclein phosphorylation as a therapeutic target in Parkinson’s disease. Braithwaite SP, Stock JB, Mouradian M. Rev Neurosci. 2012. 23(2):191-198. PMID: 22499677
  4. Tau phosphorylation and neuronal apoptosis induced by the blockade of PP2A preferentially involve GSK3ß. Martin L, Page G, Terro F. Neurochem Int. 2011. 59(2):235-250. PMID: 21672577
  5. Role of PP2A in Alzheimer’s disease. Rudrabhatla P, Pant HC. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2011. 8(6):623-632. PMID: 21605044
  6. PP2A: a novel druggable target for Alzheimer’s disease. Voronkov M, Braithwaite SP, Stock JB. Future Med Chem. 2011. 3(7):821-833. PMID: 21644827
  7. B vitamin deficiency promotes tau phosphorylation through regulation of GSK3ß and PP2A. Nicolia V, Fuso A, Cavallaro RA, Di Luzio A, Scarpa S. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010. 19(3):895-907. PMID: 20157245
  8. The carboxy-terminal fragment of inhibitor-2 of PP2A induces Alzheimer disease pathology and cognitive impairment. Wang X, Blanchard J, Kohlbrenner E, Clement N, Linden RM, Radu A, Grundke-Iqbal I, Iqbal K. FASEB J. 2010. 24(11):4420-4432. PMID: 20651003
  9. Inhibition of GSK3ß downregulates total tau proteins in cultured neurons and its reversal by the blockade of PP2A. Martin L, Magnaudeix A, Esclaire F, Yardin C, Terro F. J Brain Res. 2009. 3(1252):66-75. PMID: 19071093
  10. Structural mechanism of demethylation and inactivation of PP2A. Xing Y, Li Z, Chen Y, Stock JB, Jeffrey PD, Shi Y. Cell. 2008. 133:154-63. PMID: 18394995
  11. PP2A methyltransferase links homocysteine metabolism with tau and amyloid precursor protein regulation. Sontag E, Craig VN, Sontag JM, Arrastia RD, Ogris E, Dayal S, Lentz SR, Arning E, Bottiglieri T. Journal of Neuroscience. 2007. 27(11):2751-2759 PMID: 17360897
  12. Downregulation of PP2A carboxyl methylation and methyltransferase may contribute to Alzheimer disease pathogenesis. Sontag E, Hladik C, Montgomery L, Luangpirom A, Mudrak I, Ogris E, White C. Journal of Neuropath & Exp Neurology. 2004. 62(10):1080-1091 PMID: 15535135
  13. PP2A methylation: a link between elevated plasma homocysteine and Alzheimer’s Disease. Vafai S, Stock JB. FEBS Lett. 2002. 518, 1-4. PMID: 11997007